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|INDICATOR 18: # and % of women with union, women's group or cooperative membership through which they can voice their labor rights|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
This indicator is relevant for programs/projects multiplying impact for Dignified Work.
For CARE, dignified work is about tackling underlying structural challenges that mean men and women have no or unequal access to Decent Work. Dignified Work is about women gaining respect and recognition through earning a living wage, exercising greater agency (the knowledge and ability to make choices) and experiencing equitable relations at work (labor rights & freedom of association) and in the home (shared household care responsibilities) and benefiting from structures that respond to the needs of women and men equally and with dignity. Access to and participation in collectives – both formal and informal – is critical to women’s voice and agency, whether it is with a formal employer or the economic power holder in the family.
Realizing women’s rights at work is essential for both, decent work and substantive equality for women and requires that women can access employment with decent pay, safe working conditions and social protection. Women normally find themselves with the most vulnerable work and job status whether they are in the formal sector or informal sector. Collective action makes a difference to improving women’s access to decent work. This could be in the form of a formal union with collective bargaining, through co-operatives and through savings and self-help groups.
CARE supports ILO’s Decent Work Agenda (as referenced in SDGs) which measures decent work across 4 pillars: job creation, labor protection, social protection, and social dialogue. CARE also supports the UN Women’ Substantive Equality Framework. The Dignified Work Theory of Change is based on CARE’s Gender Equality Framework/ Women’s Empowerment Framework with 3 dimensions of empowerment to achieve transformative change: women’s agency, relations and structures; Empowerment is critical to enabling women to work with dignity.
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
This indicator is linked to SDG 5 “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls” and SDG 8 “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and descent work for all”.
| Definitions and key terms
Membership (in a group/ co-op/ union): Refers to women that are registered in a group
Union, women’s groups or cooperatives: The groups can be organized at different levels from local, regional to national and can be more or less formal.
Voice labor rights: Refers to collectives that are able to present demands to employers. This includes women’s voice and control over working conditions in value chains (e.g. agriculture) towards whoever is the power-holder (e.g. husband, employer).
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: number of women with union, women’s group or cooperative membership through which they can voice their labor
* Denominator: number of women workers surveyed ( disaggregated by age)
| Suggested method for data collection
* Appropriate and more exact definitions of membership and what are relevant groups should be discussed and agreed with representatives of the impact group. This could be part of a gender analysis.
* The information should be collected from a baseline and end line survey among representative sample of the impact group.
* Qualitative methods like focus group discussions and key informants interviews can supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of the quality of representation the group, cooperative or union provides.
| Suggested tool for data collection
* Survey questionnaire: (1) Are you a member of a union, women’s group, or cooperative?
* FGD questions: (1) What is the most significant achievement of the union, women’s group, or cooperative in terms of representing your labor / women’s rights?; (2) What has the union, women’s group, or cooperative achieved since you have been a member?; (3) What could the women’s group, or cooperative improve?; (4) Are you aware of any violations of labor of women’s rights (including molesting, grooming, physically or verbally abuse, pressure, mobbing or (sexual or other) harassment) related to work? If so, what has the union, women’s group, or cooperative done to tackle it? Has this been successful? If not, what else needs to be done
| Possible data sources
The information is collected through surveys by CARE and partners.
Qualitative methods applied on an annual basis such as FGD are also useful.
| Resources needed for data collection
The quantitative and qualitative data collection will have to be conducted by CARE and partners. It needs to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted for.
| Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* How manywomen were members of a union, women’s group or cooperative through which they can voice their labor rights last year?
* How manywomen were members of a union, women’s group or cooperative through which they could voice their labor rights (but not necessarily listened to)?
* Has there been an improvement of the % of women that were member of a union, women’s group or cooperative through which they can voice their labor rights has it stayed the same or has it worsened?Has there been an improvement of the % of women that were member of a union, women’s group or cooperative through which they can voice their labor rights (but not necessarily listened to), has it stayed the same or has it worsened?
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE’s main strategies for contributing to this change (e.g. policy advocacy, issue-based advocacy, working with unions/cooperatives/collectives, trainings and capacity building, strategic partnerships, etc.)?
* Have there been any changes in legislation or practice that have influenced the results? ( This could be by the government or global supply chains)
* Has there been a noticeable improvement or worsening in accessing decent work?
* If data about the number or % of women with access to named work is available this could be added to the analysis.
* If information about the changes in the women’s working conditions is available it should be added to the analysis.
| Other considerations
CARE supports ILO’s work across the 4 pillars of job creation, labor protection, social protection and social dialogue. CARE’s 4 pillars CARE is measuring the following indicators that are relevant for decent work (please see next section for details on these):
* # and % of women and men reporting net income increase per day; and US$ value of increase;
* Average total # and proportion of weekly hours spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location (for individuals five years and above);
* # of new employment created for impact population (women, youth);
* # and % of women and men in managerial/senior decision- making position [in company, enterprise, producer group, cooperative, VSLA etc.];
* # of new or amended policies, legislation, public programs, and/or budgets that promote gender equity / rights, needs and demands of people of all genders;
* # and % of people of all genders with knowledge & awareness of their rights and responsibilities as citizens;
* # and % of women and men who are aware of/understand gender barriers at workplace;
Social protections (WEE supplementary indicator):
* # and % of women and men who have universal access to social protection services relevant to their occupation;
* % of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, in the last 12 months;
* % of respondents who report gender equitable attitudes (GEM scale);
* # and % of women and men who are aware of/understand gender barriers at workplace
* # of organizations/social movements (and # & % of leaders, disaggregated by sex) with strengthened capacities to channel demands of marginalized citizens and engage in decision-making (Governance supplementary indicator);
* # of organizations/movements supported by CARE that are considered by their constituents to effectively represent marginalized groups;
* # of new/strengthened inclusive accountability spaces in which marginalized citizens can negotiate with service providers, public authorities or other power-holders.