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Supplementary indicatorsWomen’s Economic Empowerment
WEE supplementary indicators are to be used to complement the WEE Global Indicators. They are optional and can be used if they are relevant to the project strategy - in addition to one of the three WEE Global Indicators.
The ‘menu’ presented below outlines the indicators and the WEE Pathways the indicator is applicable for in order to make it easier for Project Managers and Funding Officers to choose an indicator relevant to their project. Finally, the menu includes suggestions for methods and tools for data collection. Please note these are just suggestions and need to be adapted to the project’s context. In case the indicator requires proxy-questions (i.e. indicator cannot be directly translated into a question), the last column in the menu also suggests questions to track the indicator.
Important note: in case a WEE project is not in a position to incorporate and measure on any of the three WEE Global Indicators, it must report on another Global Indicator or at least one of the WEE supplementary indicators. Please use as few indicators as possible but, at the same time, as many as you need to provide evidence for all key objectives of the project.
The fewer indicators you have to monitor, the more you can focus on high quality data!
Even though most WEE indicators are focused on women only, data should be collected both for men (males aged 15 to 49 -younger age should be reported as boys) and women (females aged 15 to 49 - younger age should be reported as girls). This in order to understand gender equality in the program context and to understand the composition of the population that CARE aims at impacting.
In most cases, indicators are expressed both in total number and percentage. Both figures are necessary as the former shows the number of people who are experiencing change but the percentage figure allows to determine the size of the impact/outcomes in relation to the program’s target population.
DW dignified work
RM resilient markets
VC women and value chains
ENT female entrepreneurship
FI financial inclusion
|Indicator||Applicable for WEE Pathway|| # Suggested methods and tools for data collection
# Suggested question to track indicator
# Further guidance on data analysis and definition of key terms
| WEE 1. # and % of women and men reporting net income increase per day; |
and US$ value of increase
[from selling product or service, from formal/informal employment]
[calculation of gender pay gap]
|DW, RM, VC, ENT || 1. Baseline and end line survey among representative sample of project participants. If you don’t have baseline data, ask for income before project start and now.
You can use national/local statistics on net income, but please try to verify using survey data.
2. (1) What do you earn now on a typical day from selling [specify product or service] – or from your employment?; If baseline data is not available: What did you earn on a typical day before joining the project?; (2) Have your working hours changed (increased/decreased)?.
3. Please count # women who report net income increase. To calculate % please use numerator sum of women who report increased income, denominator sum of women surveyed.
Please document US$ value of net income for men and women separately, calculate increase for men and women at baseline and end line and compare to know increase. Please calculate gender pay gap by comparing income difference between men and women (% of women’s income from men’s income for same job/source of income: numerator sum of women’s income, denominator sum of men’s income); Please ask for income in local currency and transfer to US$ at current exchange rate in your analysis.
If sale of seasonal product, ask for high and low season income and for alternative income source for respondent and family.
To analyze increase/reduction, please compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend. Please survey all genders.
Please investigate any reduction in pay and any increase in working hours (should not be more than 60 hours/week (ILO standard) as more can be potentially harmful); Net income income after tax and other expenses net hourly pay from any economic activity. Income can be from any kind of economic activity, e.g. selling product or service, formal/informal employment.
Please document in case net income at end line is below or above living wage (ILO standard).
| WEE 2. # and % of women and men who have increased capability to perform economic activity ||VC, ENT, RM|| 1. Baseline and end line survey among a representative sample of participants in capacity development activities (e.g. training, mentoring, advise or counselling service, rural extension service), participants who receive support to increase productivity/quality of service or product/business management/marketing etc.
2. (1) What additional skills have you learned/what skills have you improved thanks to the CARE intervention?; If necessary, you can probe by asking: (1a) Do you think that you now know more about calculating your operating costs, profit, growth rate, return on investment, or do you feel comfortable to develop a business plan or strategy, and whether to continue with a business pilot or not?; (3) Has your weekly net income (US$) increased thanks to the CARE intervention?; (4) Are you now producing more than before (US$ value in a typical week)?; (5) Have you been able to increase the quality of your product or service thanks to the CARE intervention? Has this increased your net income?; Please modify questions according to specific skills covered in training/advice/mentoring etc. – the above are just examples; If US$ is difficult to indicate for respondent, please ask for local currency and transfer to US$ at current exchange rate. If sale of seasonal product, ask for high and low season income and for alternative income source for respondent and family.
3. Please count all genders and disaggregate data by gender; Compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend (increase/reduction). You can use post-training/intervention questionnaires.
Capability to perform economic activity ability to perform economic activity with increased productivity (increased productivity indicates growing business and is expected to lead to increase in profit; increase productivity can be caused by industrializing, making production more cost-effective and efficient), increased profitability (positive profit indicates healthy business; for this indicator it is measured by net income (i.e. income after tax and other expenses net hourly pay from any economic activity), or increased quality (higher quality of product or service should lead to increase in profit); capability also includes skills, knowledge, financial and other resources, and assets. So, if a woman has at least two of those we can count her as having ‘increase capability’.
Please ask for local currency and transfer to US$ at current exchange rate during your data analysis. If sale of seasonal product, ask for high and low season income and for alternative income source for respondent and family.
To calculate % please use numerator sum of women who report increased capability, denominator sum of women surveyed.
This indicator can be used jointly with indicator 3 (below), as economic capability comprises ownership of or control over productive asset etc.
| WEE 3. # and % of women and men who own or control productive asset (including land)****/technology and have the skills to use them productively ||VC, RM, ENT, FI|| 1. Baseline and end line survey among a representative sample of project participants; Please ask same question to women and male partner/family or community member for triangulation. If available, you can also use land registry data or similar from local authorities, but please verify using survey data.
2. (1) Who in your HH owns (a) agricultural tools/seeds/machinery, (b) land that you cultivate, © technology used in your business, (d) assets in used in your business? Please modify questions by using specific examples of input, technology or assets relevant in this context; (2) Do you know how to productively use asset or technology?; (3) Is there anything you don’t know about using it – or anything you would like to know in addition?
3. Ownership belongs to women, her name is on land title deeds;
Productive asset any machinery or item that is used to generate income, e.g. for a hairdresser equipment, restaurant cooking equipment, agricultural machinery, seeds, etc.;
Productive technology any technology that is used to generate income (e.g. accounting software).
This indicator can be used jointly with indicator 2 (above), as economic capability comprises ownership of or control over productive asset.
For analysis of increase/reduction, please compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend.
| WEE 4. # and % of women and men who have universal access to social protection services relevant to their occupation ||DW, RM, VC, ENT|| 1. Baseline and end line survey among a representative sample of project participants. Alternatively, you can request this information from government, but try to verify (e.g. by survey among representative population or employee sample).
2. (1) Do you have universal access to (a) paid annual leave, (b) paid sick leave, © pension, (d) health care/ insurance, (e) accident insurance, (f) paid maternity/paternity leave? Please add other social protection services that are relevant in the project context;
Alternatively ask for each relevant social protection service:(2) Do you benefit from a policy for paid sick or annual leave, pension, health care, accident/health insurance?; (3) Do you use it?; (4) Could it be improved in any way?
3. Health and accident insurance/care should be universally accessible to domestic workers and sex workers, so please include these occupations; Universal access is not just limited to current employer.
It is important to include domestic workers and workers in the informal sector in the survey.
Please survey all genders and disaggregate data by gender. To analyze increase/reduction, please compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend.
| WEE 5. # and % of women and men who are aware of/understand gender barriers at workplace ||DW, VC, ENT|| 1. Baseline and end line survey among representative sample of project participants.
2. (1) From your perspective, what are major barriers at the workplace for women in general?; If necessary, please unpack question/probe for potential barriers; please modify or add questions to suit specific context: (2) What challenges do women face in formal employment, informal employment, domestic work, employment in agriculture (e.g. buying or owning land, access to agricultural extension services, access to market, training, power to decide what to do with own income, getting a paid job, balancing burden of unpaid care work, accessing formal sector jobs (or having to work informally near the home to juggle care demands), working in male-dominated industries, getting promotion and senior positions, getting better paid and more skilled positions, accessing male dominated departments and job types, equal pay, maternity benefits, representation and voice, harassment, GBV, controlling how wages are used in the home)?; (3) What challenges do women face when running a business (e.g. access to information, access to training, registering a business in their own name/owning a business, having a bank account in their own name)?; (4) What challenges do women face when trying to get into a senior political or economic position?; (5) What is dominant public attitude towards women running a business/in a senior political or economic position?
3. Gender barrier any kind of obstacle that prevents women from (a) accessing employment or income generating activity equally to men, (b) fair and equal treatment at work (e.g. equal pay , promotion to senior positions, social protection services, © control over income and productive assets.
To analyze increase/reduction, please compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend; To calculate % please use numerator total # of women who are aware of/understand gender barriers at work, denominator total # of women surveyed.
This indicator can be used jointly with indicator GE/Governance indicator #20, as awareness of barriers can be the first step towards removal of the same barriers brought about by change in policy or legislation.
| WEE 6. # and % of women and men in managerial/senior decision- making position |
[in company, enterprise, producer group, cooperative, VSLA etc.]
|VC, ENT, DW, FI|
Alternatively, you can request this information from the company or group leader, but try to verify (e.g. list of members, terms of reference, members’ survey etc.); Compare baseline and end line #s and indicate trend (increase/reduction).
3. managerial position all positions above middle-management/managerial/supervisor positions in company or enterprise or producer group (e.g. head of team, director, board member, head/chair of group (also VSLA) or committee; also supervision and all senior roles ( i.e. any role that has significant decision making power).
To analyze increase/reduction, please compare baseline and end line numbers and indicate trend.
To calculate % please use numerator total # of women in managerial positions, denominator total # of managerial positions available in all companies and enterprises CARE works with. ||
 DW dignified work, RM resilient markets, VC women and value chains, ENT female entrepreneurship
 Informs SDG indicator 5.a 1 (b) ‘share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure’ (global data collected by FAO, UN Women).
 FI financial inclusion