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|INDICATOR 5: Increased adaptive capacity among households and communities dependent on small- scale food production|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
Resilience (including to climate change and variability – as per impact indicator above) is built through improving adaptive capacity of households and communities. This indicator is thus required in order to capture and describe progress in building resilience to climate change – meeting both FNS+CCR outcome area requirement and also delivering evidence on the success of CARE’s Resilience Approach. Resilience indicators are challenging, with both proxy and process indicators commonly used but in here measurement relates to numbers of community-based adaptation approaches and/or risk reducing actions adopted – using Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) and other tools. CARE’s Adaptation Good Practice Checklist (AGP) describes metrics and should be consulted. The CARE CBA milestones and indicators framework is also a useful resource. Other useful guidance include the DFID/Garama 3C and the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC) Framework.
This indicator should be documented at local, sub-national, national and regional scales in our programming context.
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
* SDG Goal 5
* SDG Goal 7
* SDG Goal 13
* SDG Goal 15
| Definitions and key terms
TAMD is a conceptual framework to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation.
Measuring adaptation, adaptive capacity and resilience is complicated and they tend to be measured in terms of attributes of the system rather than as outcomes for farms and people. Context-specificity is important – for example, a more diverse system is more adaptive in many cases (but not always; diversification should be pursued with caution). Examples of indicators used to measure adaptation and resilience include:
* Access to capitals (financial, human, social/political, physical, natural)
* Access to services (particularly climate information services)
* Level of skills, knowledge and access to extension on climate change
* Diversity in livelihoods and income sources
* Market access (for food, agricultural inputs and agricultural product markets)
* Gender equity (e.g. labor burden, income differences)
* Biodiversity (e.g. species and landscape variety, nitrogen %)
* Pests/pathogens (e.g. % loss, damage rates, frequency/seasonality of attacks)
* Erosion/Soil loss (e.g. kg/ha)
* Soil quality (e.g. changes in carbon, nitrogen, soil water balance, etc.)
* Income levels
* Savings and access to credit
* Land rights/tenure
* Access to insurance
* Proportion of income from climate-prone sources
* Enabling policy and regulation environment
* Incentive systems and subsidies (directed away from maladaptive practices towards resilience practices)
* Safety net schemes
* Early warning systems and disaster recovery strategies
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: Numbers of people (by gender) better able to build resilience to the effects of climate change and variability
* Denominator: Total number of people (by gender) affected by climate change and variability impacts
| Suggested method for data collection
* TAMD manual
* CARE Community-Based Adaptation manual
* CARE (ALP) Adaptation Good Practice Checklist
* DFID/Garama 3C manual
* ACCRA Local Adaptive Capacity Framework (LAC)
* Qualitative methods such as FGDs and KIIs as well as thematic impact studies should supplement quantitative data collection.
| Possible data sources
* Primary data collection: household survey
* Secondary data
* National and local adaptation plans and data
* CVCAs (or other vulnerability analyses such as social norms and barriers analysis – these will contain baseline data).
| Resources needed for data collection
The quantitative and qualitative data collection, storage and analysis should be conducted by CARE and partners. Partners may include research / university partners. Data collection needs to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted for.
| Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* Reporting Purpose: þBaseline þProgress þ Evaluation
* Risk management capacity levels in both soft forms (institutions, committees, tasks forces, etc.)
* and hard infrastructures (bridges, basins, dams, protection walls, etc.)
* Changes in understanding of climate risks amongst populations and key stakeholders
* Number of communities with community-based adaptation plans of action or with disaster risk management plans
* Level of adoption (number of households) of sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices (e.g. conservation agriculture, water-smart agriculture, safe and fuel efficient energy sources, agroforestry etc. Link to indicator 1.)
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* How are supported households and communities better able to adapt climate change and variability?
* What are the adaptation practices used by supported households and communities?
* How communities and households are prepared for, anticipating, and absorbing shocks?
* What actions or interventions have transformed household and communities’ ability to become resilient to climate change?
| Other considerations
* FGDs, KIIs, and secondary data reviews can provide qualitative verification, especially regarding other external factors (insecurity, political instability, disasters, etc.) which could have affected the implementation of adaptation plans/initiatives.
* Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) is a recognized approach for building the capacity of vulnerable communities and people to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The approach is grounded in good development practice, focusing on sustainable livelihoods, attention to differences within communities of impacts and adaptive capacities, integrating rights-based approaches, and addressing gender inequality and marginalization to ensure that the most vulnerable groups and people can adapt.