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|INDICATOR 4f. # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who obtained adequate food quantities and quality
INDICATOR 4g. # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who adopted adequate nutritional practices
|Why these indicators? What will it measure and provide information for?
These indicators relate to one of CARE’s four core sectors for humanitarian response: Shelter, FNS, SRMH, WASH. It aims to gather disaggregated data on number of crisis / disaster affected households supported by CARE and/or its partners with FNS assistance and its grounding in relevant sector standards.
Access to food and the maintenance of an adequate nutritional status are critical determinants of people’s survival in a disaster. The people affected are often already chronically undernourished when the disaster hits. Undernutrition is a serious public health problem and among the lead causes of death, whether directly or indirectly.T he vulnerability of infants and young children means that addressing their nutrition should be a priority. Prevention of undernutrition is as important as treatment of acute malnutrition. Food security interventions may determine nutrition and health in the short term and their survival and well-being in the long term.
Target (CARE Humanitarian & Emergency Strategy 2013-2020) :
Humanitarian assistance provided by/through CARE (partners) reaches at least 5-15% (depending on emergency type) of all households affected by a particular disaster / crisis (of all households affected by a particular disaster / crisis in need of assistance in a particular technical area) ||| What Humanitarian Standards and Humanitarian Indicators are these indicators connected to?
This indicator refers to the SPHERE minimum standards in food security and nutrition with further references to SPHERE companion standards such as:
* TheLivestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)
* Minimum requirements for market analysis in emergencies developed by CaLP
Furthermore some CARE FNLSR related indicators refer to
* Minimum dietary diversity for women (MMD-W)(FAO / FANTA)
* Food Consumption Score (WfP / Food Security Cluster)
*TheHumanitarian Response Indicators Registry includes a wide range of Food Security and Nutrition outcome indicators (total of 45) which cover but are not limited to:
* Food access and availability
* Food utilization (including intra-household food distribution)
* Prevention and Management of Acute Malnutrition (especially infants, pregnant and lactating women)
* Infant and Young Child Feeding
Definitions and key terms
The SPHERE minimum standards reflect the core content of the right to food and contribute to the progressive realization of this right globally.The right to food implies the obligations:
* to respect and protect existing access to adequate food and nutritional services, and
* to proactively engage in activities intended to enhance availability, people’s access to and utilization of resources and means to ensure their livelihoods, including food security.
* Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Availability refers to the quantity, quality and seasonality of the food supply in the disaster-affected area especially through local sources. Access refers to the capacity of a household to safely procure sufficient food to satisfy the nutritional needs of all its members. Utilization refers to a household’s use of the food to which it has access, including storage, processing and preparation, and distribution within the household. It is also an individual’s ability to absorb and metabolize nutrients, which can be affected by disease and malnutrition.
* Livelihoods comprise the capabilities, assets (including natural, material and social resources) and activities used by a household for survival and future well-being. A household’s livelihood is secure when it can cope with and recover from shocks, and maintain or enhance its capabilities and productive assets. Coping strategies are defined as temporary responses forced by food insecurity.
* Nutrition is a broad term referring to processes involved in eating, digestion and utilization of food by the body for growth and development, reproduction, physical activity and maintenance of health.
AusAid/OECD Gender Equality Toolkit specifically recognizes that women often play a greater role in planning and preparation of food for their households. Following a disaster, household livelihood strategies may change. Recognizing distinct gender roles in family nutrition is key to improving food security at the household level. Understanding the unique nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating women, young children, older people and persons with disabilities is also important in developing appropriate food responses.
Data and information required to calculate the indicators
Unit Description: Number and percentage
Numerator: Number of households / people having received sector specific assistance by/through CARE (partners) caseload reached (reference: guidance note for participant reporting, PIIRS project categories).
Denominator: Total number of disaster/crisis affected households / people overall caseload (specify if possible: HH / people in need of specific assistance specific caseload)
Mandatory:Sex, age and disability/special needs (specify Head of Household);
Sector specific: Type of FNS assistance received (cash; basic foods, supplemental feeds; food for work; other); FNS strategy (e.g. agriculture, livestock, food purchase, other)
Context specific:legal status (host, IDP, refugee, registered / not registered); Household tenure situation (owner / owner-occupier; renter; squatter; no tenure); Type of settlement (urban / rural; formal / informal) or displacement site/situation (self-settled / planned camp; collective center; host family)
Suggested method for data collection & Possible data sources
Monitoring this indicator will rely on a combination of primary and secondary/tertiary data sources with more or less comparable methodologies of data collection. Triangulation might be needed in order to consolidate confidence levels of data used. CARE should adopt data collection methodology for nominator to ensure alignment with most reliable sources for denominator data.
Nominator: assistance monitoringconducted by CARE directly, through partners or remotely (third party); data collected through activity reports, observation at location, end user surveys etc.
Denominator:mainly from secondary sources such Government/UN sanctioned general assessments (including MIRA or other multi-sectoral / interagency assessments); data can be further refined (e.g. with regards to disaggregation) / validated through more in depth assessments conducted by CARE including geo-data (coordinates)
Level of effort needed for data collection and reporting: MEDIUM HIGH
Household specific monitoring for nominator and denominator data requires high level of effort including detailed surveying of households, geo-data, establishment of databases etc. LoE can be reduced by limiting detailed surveying to robust samples with potential for longitudinal surveying of sentinel households / sites.
Frequency of reporting should be aligned with availability of secondary data for caseload (denominator) as well as with frequency of interventions by CARE and/or partners (e.g. post distribution monitoring, seasonal surveys, gender specific surveys).
* Current status reported through sitreps (frequency varies);
* consolidated data reported annually through PIIRS ||| Data analysis and interpretation of results for this indicator: explaining trends (e.g. caseload needs, actors providing assistance) during reporting time, how and why the outcome was reached, and how CARE contributed to the outcome
This indicator requires constant adjustment of data with the documentation of trends on
* caseload (overall, sector specific, reached by CARE) and disaggregation (see above)
* assistance provided by CARE and others
* alignment of assistance with minimum standards (SPHERE) and/or other multi-agency agreed standards
* recovery of food and nutrition security by affected population
To assess adequacy and gender sensitivity of assistance provided (by CARE and others) more analysis is required with regards to:
* Extent to which assistance provided by CARE and/or others is aligned with global FNS standards
* Extent to which CARE interventions reach the most vulnerable groups (women & girls in particular) as identified through relevant assessments
* Extent to which assistance supports sustainable change in food consumption and nutrition practices
* Extent to which population recover (sustainable) food and nutrition practices without external assistance
Data related to the technical adequacy of assistance provided should always be analyzed while taking into account the feedback received from the affected population itself. Their perceptions are captured through data and information collected under the Global indicator related to the satisfaction of crisis/disaster affected people with the relevance, timeliness and accountability of humanitarian interventions in areas of CARE’s response.**