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| INDICATOR 4c. # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who accessed safe drinking water
INDICATOR 4d. # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who accessed adequate sanitation
INDICATOR 4e. # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who used adequate hygiene practices
| Why these indicators? What will they measure and provide information for?
These indicators relate to one of CARE’s four core sectors for humanitarian response: Shelter, FNS, SRMH, WASH. It aims to gather disaggregated data on number of crisis / disaster affected households supported by CARE and/or its partners with WASH assistance and its grounding in relevant sector standards.
Access to safe drinking water, use of adequate sanitation facilities and of good hygiene practices (WASH) are indivisible and critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster and therefore are priority areas for lifesaving assistance in most humanitarian disasters and crisis. Beyond survival, simply providing sufficient water and sanitation facilities will not, on its own, ensure their optimal use or impact on public health. In order to achieve the maximum benefit from a response, it is imperative that disaster-affected people have the necessary information, knowledge and understanding to prevent water- and sanitation-related diseases and to get involved (individually and/or collectively) in the selection, design and maintenance of these facilities.
| Target (CARE Humanitarian & Emergency Strategy 2013-2020) :
Humanitarian assistance provided by/through CARE (partners) reaches at least 5-15% (depending on emergency type) of all households affected by a particular disaster / crisis (OR if appropriate and more precise: of all disaster / crisis affected households of a specific geographic area in need of particular technical assistance)
| What Humanitarian Standards and Humanitarian Indicators are these indicators connected to?
These indicators refer to the **SPHERE minimum standards in water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion** which aim to protect public health through ensuring the optimal use of all water supply and sanitation facilities and practicing safe hygiene. The focus on hygiene promotion is crucial and specific as it is vital to a successful WASH intervention. In general terms, hygiene promotion is integral to all of the sections and is reflected in the indicators for water supply, excreta disposal, vector control, solid waste management and drainage.
The**Humanitarian Response Indicators Registry** includes a wide range of WASH outcome indicators (total of 17) which include but are not limited to:
* Use of safe water for drinking and cooking (W1-7)
* Defecation practices (W1-8, W3-1)
* Hand washing (W1-9)
* Access and water quantity (W2-3 and W2.4)
**AusAid/OECD Gender Equality Toolkit**specifically requires monitoring of safety and privacy of water and sanitation sites and housing as well as equal control over use and maintenance of WASH facilities.
| Definitions and key terms
Connected with Sphere standards, the provision of ‘adequate’ WASH implies the reduction of transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through promotion of:
* good hygiene practices
* the provision of safe drinking water (including equitable access and sufficient quantity and quality)
* the reduction of environmental health risks
* conditions that allow people to live with good health, dignity, comfort and security.
Simply providing sufficient water and sanitation facilities will not, on its own, ensure their optimal use or impact on public health. In order to achieve the maximum benefit from a response, it is imperative that disaster-affected people have the necessary information, knowledge and understanding to apply safe and dignified practices that prevent water- and sanitation-related diseases and to get involved (individually and/or collectively) in the selection, design and maintenance of these facilities.
| Data and information required to calculate the indicators
Unit Description: Number and percentage
Numerator: Number of households / people having received sector specific assistance by/through CARE (partners) caseload reached (reference: guidance note for participant reporting, PIIRS project categories).
Denominator: Total number of disaster/crisis affected households / people overall caseload (specify if possible: HH / people in need of specific assistance specific caseload)
Mandatory: Sex, age and disability/special needs (specify Head of Household);
Sector specific: Type of WASH assistance received (supply, cash; material; labor; transportation; other); WASH infrastructure damage category; Occupancy (multiple occupancy; single family occupancy; collective shelter);
Context specific: legal status (host, IDP, refugee, registered / not registered); Household tenure situation (owner / owner-occupier; renter; squatter; no tenure); Type of settlement (urban / rural; formal / informal) or displacement site/situation (self-settled / planned camp; collective center; host family);
| Suggested method for data collection & Possible data sources
Monitoring this indicator will rely on a combination of primary and secondary/tertiary data sources with more or less comparable methodologies of data collection. Triangulation might be needed in order to consolidate confidence levels of data used. CARE should adopt data collection methodology for nominator to ensure alignment with most reliable sources for denominator data.
Nominator: assistance monitoringconducted by CARE directly, through partners or remotely (third party); data collected through activity reports, observation at location, end user surveys etc.
Denominator: mainly from secondary sources such Government/UN sanctioned general assessments (including MIRA or other multi-sectoral / interagency assessments); data can be further refined (e.g. with regards to disaggregation) / validated through more in depth assessments conducted by CARE including geo-data (coordinates)
| Level of effort needed for data collection and reporting: MEDIUM HIGH
Household specific monitoring for nominator and denominator data requires high level of effort including detailed surveying of households, geo-data, establishment of databases etc. LoE can be reduced by limiting detailed surveying to robust samples with potential for longitudinal surveying of sentinel households / sites.
Frequency of reporting should be aligned with availability of secondary data for caseload (denominator) as well as with frequency of interventions by CARE and/or partners (e.g. post distribution monitoring, seasonal surveys, gender specific surveys).
* Current status reported through sitreps (frequency varies);
* Consolidated data reported annually through PIIRS
| Data analysis and interpretation of results for this indicator: explaining trends (e.g. caseload needs, actors providing assistance) during reporting time, how and why the outcome was reached, and how CARE contributed to the outcome
This indicator requires constant adjustment of data based on the documentation of following trends:
* caseload (overall, sector specific, reached by CARE) and disaggregation (see above)
* assistance provided by CARE and others
* alignment of assistance with minimum standards (SPHERE) and/or multi-agency agreed standards
* recovery of housing by affected population
To assess adequacy and gender sensitivity of assistance provided (by CARE and others) more analysis is required with regards to:
* Extent to which assistance provided by CARE and/or others is aligned with minimum WASH standards
* Extent to which CARE interventions reach the most vulnerable groups (women & girls in particular) as identified through relevant assessments
* Extent to which assistance provided supports sustainable change in hygiene practices
* Extent to which population recover (safe) WASH practices without external assistance
| Other considerations
Data related to the technical adequacy of assistance provided should always be analyzed while taking into account the feedback received from the affected population itself. Their perceptions are captured through data and information collected under the Global indicator related to the satisfaction of crisis/disaster affected people with the relevance, timeliness and accountability of humanitarian interventions in areas of CARE’s response.