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|INDICATOR 4a: # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who obtained adequate emergency shelter
INDICATOR 4b: # and % of disaster/crisis-affected people supported through/by CARE who obtained or recovered adequate housing
|Why these indicators? What will they measure and provide information for?
These indicators relate to one of CARE’s four core sectors for humanitarian response: Shelter, FNS, SRH, WASH. They aim to gather disaggregated data on number of crisis / disaster affected households supported by CARE and/or its partners with shelter assistance and its grounding in relevant sector standards.
Shelter and housing are critical determinants for safety and protection in the initial stages of a disaster and therefore is one of the priority areas for emergency assistance in most humanitarian disasters and crises. In cold climates shelter is an urgent life-saving priority. Beyond immediate urgent needs, shelter or housing is necessary to provide security of person and of possessions, to provide protection from the climate, and to resist ill health and disease, including avoidance of psychological ill health. It is also important for human dignity, to sustain family and community life and to enable affected populations to recover from the impact of disaster.
Shelter, housing and associated settlement and household non-food item responses should support existing coping strategies and promote self-sufficiency and self-management by those affected by the disaster. As such, recovery of adequate housing is a key pre-requisite for achieving many of CARE’s objectives post-disaster including resilience.
In CARE’s humanitarian responses three basic scenarios are possible with regards to the explicit distinction of shelter and housing interventions – all three scenarios requiring the application of specific supplementary indicators:
* We provide only emergency shelter, and not recovery support
* We provide only recovery support and not emergency shelter
* We provide both
|Target (CARE Humanitarian & Emergency Strategy 2013-2020) :
Humanitarian assistance provided by/through CARE (partners) reaches at least 5-15% (depending on emergency type) of all households affected by a particular disaster / crisis (OR if appropriate and more precise: of all disaster / crisis affected households of a specific geographic area in need of particular technical assistance)
|What Humanitarian Standards and Humanitarian Indicators are these indicators connected to?
These indicators refer to the SPHERE minimum standards in Shelter and Settlement:
# Shelter and settlement strategies contribute to the security, safety, health and well-being of both displaced and non-displaced affected populations and promote recovery and reconstruction where possible.
# The planning of return, host or temporary communal settlements enables the safe and secure use of accommodation and essential services by the affected population.
# People have sufficient covered living space providing thermal comfort, fresh air and protection from the climate ensuring their privacy, safety and health and enabling essential household and livelihood activities to be undertaken.
# Local safe building practices, materials, expertise and capacities are used where appropriate, maximizing the involvement of the affected population and local livelihood opportunities.
# Shelter and settlement solutions and the material sourcing and construction techniques used minimize adverse impact on the local natural environment.
The related Humanitarian Response Indicator(s) (see **Humanitarian Response Indicators Registry**) are:
* Indicator code S1-2-1: Number and percentage of households having received shelter assistance (outcome)
* Outcome indicators (19) related to various elements defining ‘adequate housing’ (see below)
**AusAid/OECD Gender Equality Toolkit**specifically requires monitoring of safety and privacy of temporary shelter and housing as well as equal tenure rights.
|Definitions and key terms (see Shelter Guidance on the CARE Emergency Toolkit for more information)
These indicators measure either provision of adequate emergency shelter, or meaningful support to help people recovery adequate housing.
* Provision of adequate emergency shelter: this includes the provision of basic shelter materials (e.g. plastic sheeting, tents), household NFIs (e.g. bedding, clothes, cook sets, lighting and stoves), or other response modalities such as short-term cash for shelter, cash for rent, host family support, etc. Note that, for measuring this indicator, the qualitative element of ‘adequate’ emergency shelter implies that the recipients have temporary (i.e. for a maximum of 12 months) shelter within 4 weeks of reaching the location which provides them with safety for themselves and their belongings, and a sufficient level of dignity. This also includes subsequent measures that contribute to improving the temporary shelter including winterization, access to sanitation and water, safety (e.g. lights) etc. beyond the first 4 weeks of the arrival of the displaced persons.
* Provision or recovery of adequate housing: this includes projects and approaches which allow people to regain secure shelter in the longer term. This may include repair and reconstruction of housing, cash for recovery or longer term rental support, technical assistance, legal assistance on land rights and tenure, or livelihoods support to ensure sufficient income for sustainable recovery of shelter. It may also include settlement-wide support to ensure access to services and infrastructure.
Sphere standards referring to key international rights instruments defining “Adequate Housing” include:
* sufficient space and protection from cold, damp, heat, rain, wind or other threats to health, including structural hazards and disease vectors
* the availability of services, facilities, materials and infrastructure
* affordability, habitability, accessibility, location and cultural appropriateness
* sustainable access to natural and common resources; safe drinking water; energy for cooking, heating and lighting; sanitation and washing facilities; means of food storage; refuse disposal; site drainage; and emergency services
* the appropriate siting of settlements and housing to provide safe access to healthcare services, schools, childcare centers and other social facilities and to livelihood opportunities
* that building materials and policies relating to housing construction appropriately enable the expression of cultural identity and diversity of housing.
In addition, adequate housing requires also access to NFIs such as
* clothing and bedding materials that meet the most personal human needs for the maintenance of health, privacy and dignity.
* basic goods and supplies that enable affected populations to prepare and consume food, provide thermal comfort, meet personal hygiene needs and build, maintain or repair shelters
Data and information required to calculate these indicators
Unit Description: Number and percentage
Numerator: Number of households / people having received sector specific assistance by/through CARE (partners) caseload reached (reference: guidance note for participant reporting, PIIRS project categories).
Denominator: Total number of disaster/crisis affected households / people
overall caseload (specify if possible: HH / people in need of specific assistance specific caseload)
Mandatory:Sex, age and disability/special needs (specify Head of Household);
Sector specific: Type of shelter assistance received (shelter materials; household NFIs; cash/vouchers; labor; transportation; information; technical assistance; other); Shelter damage category; Occupancy (multiple occupancy; single family occupancy; collective shelter);
Context specific: legal status (host, IDP, refugee, registered / not registered, returnee); Household tenure situation (owner / owner-occupier; renter; squatter; no tenure); Type of settlement (urban / rural; formal / informal) or displacement site/situation (self-settled / planned camp; collective center; host family);
NOTE: some donors are interested specifically in counting shelter/housing units established/upgraded (e.g. in new camps or for dispersed IDPs). In this case use the appropriate output indicator (#units) but ensure that occupancy is monitored and documented according to this requirement.
Suggested method for data collection & Possible data sources
Monitoring these indicators will rely on a combination of primary and secondary/tertiary data sources with more or less comparable methodologies of data collection. Triangulation might be needed in order to consolidate confidence levels of data used. CARE should adopt data collection methodology for nominator to ensure alignment with most reliable sources for denominator data.
Nominator: assistance monitoring conducted by CARE directly, through partners or remotely (third party); data collected through activity reports, observation at location, end user surveys etc.
Denominator: mainly from secondary sources such Government/UN sanctioned general assessments (including MIRA or other multi-sectoral / interagency assessments); data can be further refined (e.g. with regards to disaggregation) / validated through more in depth assessments conducted by CARE including geo-data (coordinates)
Level of effort needed for data collection and reporting: MEDIUM HIGH
Household specific monitoring for nominator and denominator data requires high level of effort including detailed surveying of households, geo-data, establishment of databases etc. LoE can be reduced by
* limiting detailed surveying to robust samples with potential for longitudinal surveying of sentinel households / sites,
* combining monitoring with household level technical or legal assistance provision and community mobilization
* Collecting some qualitative non-technical data via focus groups and KII rather than door to door.
Frequency of reporting should be aligned with availability of secondary data for caseload (denominator) as well as with frequency of interventions by CARE and/or partners (e.g. post distribution monitoring, seasonal surveys, gender specific surveys).
* Current status reported through sitreps (frequency varies);
* consolidated data reported annually through PIIRS
|Data analysis and interpretation of results for this indicator: explaining trends (e.g. caseload needs, actors providing assistance) during reporting time, how and why the outcome was reached, and how CARE contributed to the outcome
This indicator requires constant adjustment of data based on the documentation of following trends:
* caseload (overall, sector specific, reached by CARE) and disaggregation (see above)
* assistance provided by CARE and others
* alignment of assistance with minimum standards (SPHERE) and/or multi-agency agreed standards
* recovery of housing by affected population
To assess adequacy and gender sensitivity of assistance provided (by CARE and others) more analysis is required with regards to:
* Extent to which assistance provided by CARE is aligned with minimum standards for adequate housing
* Extent to which CARE interventions reach the most vulnerable groups (women & girls in particular) as identified through relevant assessments
* Extent to which assistance supports building back stronger/safer housing (hazard mitigation, access and protection measures)
* Extent to which population recover (adequate) housing without external assistance
Data related to the technical adequacy of assistance provided should always be analyzed while taking into account the feedback received from the affected population itself. Their perceptions are captured through data and information collected under the Global indicator related to the satisfaction of crisis/disaster affected people with the relevance, timeliness and accountability of humanitarian interventions in areas of CARE’s response.