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|INDICATOR 2: Proportion of the population below the national poverty line|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
This is a globally used indicator that measures the share of the population living in households with per-capita consumption or income that is below the national poverty line. Reduction of poverty is a major objective in many countries (SDG Target 1.21.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions)
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
SDG Goal 1, indicator 1.2.1: By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
| Definitions and key terms
Poverty: Households having with per-capita consumption or income that is below the national poverty line. Cross-country comparisons should not be made using national poverty lines, as these do not reflect any single agreed-upon international norm on poverty. However, when the focus is narrowed to one country and the same poverty line has been used consistently over time, analyses of trends and patterns of poverty may be informative and in many cases more useful for national inferences than analysis of international poverty lines
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: the number of persons living in households below the national poverty line (disaggregated by sex, age and employment status)
* Denominator: the total number of persons (disaggregated by the same sex, age and employment status groups)
| Suggested method for data collection
* Primary data collection: household surveys
* Secondary data analysis, from World Bank, ILO, UN and government statistics.
* For more information: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/measuringpoverty
* Qualitative methods like focus group discussions and key informants interviews should supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of barriers and to decreasing rates of poverty.
| Possible data sources
* Primary data collection: household surveys, using standard questionnaires (as applied by national statistics agencies)
* Secondary data provided by national statistics offices
* Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS) and Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) surveys in sub-Saharan Africa (funded by the World Bank)
| Resources needed for data collection
Quantitative data can be obtained household surveys carried out by National Statistics Offices and others. Qualitative research on CARE’s contribution will require resources and possibly the support of a research or evaluation partner. Significant resources for household surveys would need to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted for, should CARE collect quantitative data (which would be rare).
| Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* A change in the percentage of people living in households below the national poverty line.
* An analysis of how CARE contributed to this change.
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* What have been the main changes in poverty levels over the life of this project? Were there important differences in changes in poverty levels by gender, age, social or employment status or other factors?
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE's main strategies for contributing to this change?
* Have there been any changes in legislation, practice or Government programs (e.g. Social Protection) that have influenced the results? What other factors explain the change?
| Other considerations
* Changes in poverty levels are likely to be influenced by many different factors, beyond those affected by CARE and our partners’ programs. Careful interpretation of data, and triangulation with other sources, is needed to avoid overstating our contribution to changes.