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|INDICATOR 17: # and % of women who report they are able to equally participate in household financial decision-making|
|Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
This indicator measures women’s decision making power in relation to the household’s finances. The indicator is a proxy to show change in social norms supporting women’s economic and financial empowerment. Equal participation in financial decision increases women’s access and control over the household’s resources. This indicator is relevant for all WEE pathways: DW Dignified Work; FI Financial Inclusion; ENT Female Entrepreneurship; VC Women and Value Chains; RM Women in Resilient Markets.
|What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
This indicator is linked to
* SDG 5 “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”, because women and girls using financial services supports a more equal role in society for them. Equal decision making power is a necessary precondition to be met to achieve economic empowerment for women and girls. However, it does not automatically lead to economic empowerment.
* SDG 8 “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and descent work for all”.
|Definitions and key terms
Equally: Women and men have equal decision making power (i.e. their voice weighs equally). Women or those in the “power down” position are able to hold their own during conversations with men, to use their knowledge of finances and business their own agency to speak out, posit arguments and make judgment calls. Men respect women’s opinion, give them the space to speak, and weigh women’s opinions and arguments as just as important as their own. Men and other power-holders begin the decision making exercise understanding that women have the same personal, social and political worth as them.
Financial decision-making: The relevant financial decision-making processes need to be determined based on the local context. It is important that the range of financial decisions is reflected: which business to enter and key business management decisions, purchase or sale of productive assets (like machines, fertilizers, tools), land, real estate, financial assets (like loans, savings).
|Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: number of women (female and male-headed households) who report they are able to equally participate in financial decision-making
Denominator: total women (in female and in male-headed households) surveyed |||
|Suggested method for data collection
* Baseline and end line among representative sample of the impact group (ask women and their male partners). The data should be collected at baseline, subsequently followed up every second year (depending on the programs length).
* Depending on context please chose 5 major financial decisions topics and ask proxy question for each one of these (see example proxy questions below). Preferably, discuss the major financial decision topics with representatives of the impact group as part of a gender analysis during the baseline.
* Survey couples, but ask male and female respond separately (at the same time, if possible).
* Count # of couples that either respond they jointly decide on all 5 (and the woman’s voice weighs equally), or women decide on at least 3 of 5 decision topics;
Qualitative methods like focus group discussions and key informants interviews should supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of barriers and potential negative consequences.
|Suggested tool for data collection
* Survey questionnaire: (1) In your HH how do you decide (a) what to spend money on, (b) whether to take a loan, © what to do with loan amount or savings (or other financial asset)?; (2) In your HH how do you decide how to spend the woman’s income?; (3) In your HH how do you decide how to spend the man’s income?; (4) In your HH, how do you decide on major household purchase [needs to be contextualized, but can be TV, land, real estate, car etc.]?; (5) In your HH how do you decide what business to engage in?; (8) In your HH how do decide on taking a loan or open a savings account?; (6) In your HH how do you decide on major purchase of productive asset such as fertilizer, tools, machines, land, real estate (or other productive asset or income generation)? [Response options: only female, only male, equally together]; for female respondent: (7) Do you feel you have a stronger or weaker say in these decision since you have been participating in the project?; (8) Do you own land in your name?; (9) Do you own any major productive assets in your name (e.g. cattle, machine)?; (10) Have you ever used your savings for business or money-lending?
* Overall guidance: Ask for HOW financial decisions are made, instead of WHO decides.
|Possible data sources
The information is collected through annual surveys by CARE and partners.
|Resources needed for data collection
The quantitative and qualitative data collection will have to be conducted by CARE and partners. It needs to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted for.
Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* How many women (female and male-headed households) report they are able to equally participate in household financial decision-making last year?
* What has been the trend in % of women who report they are able to equally participate in household financial decision-making? Has the % increase, stagnated or decreased?
|Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE’s main strategies for contributing to this change (e.g. model men/engaging men, awareness raising, etc.)?
* Have there been any changes in legislation or practice that have influenced the results?
* What are the types of financial decisions that have seen a noticeable increase or decrease in the involvement of women?
* If the following information is available from quantitative or qualitative sources it would help the analysis of the data:
− How are women concretely benefitting from the change? How has the gender based division of labor inside the household changed? Have men contributed to the change and how? Has the level of conflict inside the household increased or decreased?
− How have women changed? What strategies did they use to gain more power in decision making? How have men changed? What attitudes and behaviors did they change to share decision making more with women?
− How do women and men know that their decision making is “more equal”? What behavior proves this?
− How have any changes in these gender relations strengthened women’s ability to participate in, sustain and grow their economic activities/businesses? How has this change in dynamic contributed to women’s access to and control over financial assets and benefits?
It is worthwhile to also monitor trends in the household’s economic situation – and to assess whether economic advancement correlates with increase women’s decision making power.
This indicator can be complemented by the following:
* # and % of women and men reporting net income increase per day(WEE supplementary indicator);
* # and % of women and men who own or control productive asset (including land) / technology and have the skills to use them productively (WEE supplementary indicator);
* # and % of women and men in managerial/senior decision- making position [in company, enterprise, producer group, cooperative, VSLA etc.];
* # and % of people of all genders with knowledge & awareness of their rights and responsibilities as citizens (Governance supplementary indicator);
* % of respondents who report gender equitable attitudes (GEM scale).