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|INDICATOR 13: Prevalence of population with moderate or severe food insecurity, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
Developed by FAO from Voices of Hunger project, adopted by SDGs. Based on self-reporting, uses a continuum of food insecurity from worrying about access, to compromising quality, to reducing quantity / frequency, to experiencing hunger. Focus on access to food, collected at the household or individual level. Intended to complement (not to substitute) other measures of food insecurity. Metric for the severity of food insecurity with a focus on the access dimension.
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
SDG Goal 2.2, indicator 2.1.2 (green list, Nov 2015): “Prevalence of population with moderate or severe food insecurity, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)”
| Definitions and key terms
Food (in)security: Access to food (men and women) because of financial resources; also includes negative coping strategies (skipping meals, going an entire day without food), lack of quality and variety.
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Survey modules are for households or individual level.
| Suggested method for data collection
* Manual available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-as583e.pdf
* Survey module available at: http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/voices/fiesscale/en/
* Qualitative methods like focus group discussions and key informants interviews should supplement the quantitative data collection to provide a better understanding of barriers and potential negative consequences of access to food.
| Possible data sources
Primary data collection using the above survey modules.
| Resources needed for data collection
The quantitative and qualitative data collection, storage, analysis will be responsibility of CARE and partners. It needs to be included in the monitoring and evaluation plan and budgeted for.
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* What have been the main changes in people’s experience of food insecurity over life of this project? Were there important differences in how different types of people (by gender, age, social or economic status etc.) experienced food insecurity?
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE’s main strategies for contributing to this change?
* Have there been any changes in legislation or practice that have influenced the results?
* What are the types of household decision making around food consumption that have seen a noticeable increase or decrease in the involvement of women?
* If the following information is available from quantitative or qualitative sources it would help the analysis of the data:
− How are women concretely benefitting from the change? How has the gender based division of labor inside the household changed? Have men contributed to the change and how? Has the level of conflict inside the household increased or decreased?
− How have women changed? What strategies did they use to gain more power in decision making? How have men changed? What attitudes and behaviors did they change to share decision making more with women?
− How do women and men know that their decision making is “more equal”? What behavior proves this?
− How have any changes in these gender relations strengthened women’s ability to participate in, sustain and grow their economic activities/businesses? How has this change in dynamic contributed to women’s access to and control over financial assets and benefits?
| Other considerations
* Care needs to be taken when planning and conducting data collection (quantitative and qualitative) to avoid leading questions.
* Establishing validity of results implies finding agreement on a definition of this food insecurity construct that can be measured along a scale of severity. In other words, it requires being able to speak legitimately of subjects to only in term of being food insecure of not, but also as being more or less food insecurity than others.