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|INDICATOR 12: % of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, in the last 12 months|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
Violence against women and girls is one of the most pervasive human rights abuses in the world today and takes place in all countries. In order to eradicate violence against women and girls, it is necessary to measure its prevalence in all its forms. By measuring the prevalence of sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, this indicator complements the other priority indicator (on physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner). Furthermore, by disaggregating this indicator by place of occurrence and perpetrator, this indicator would measure sexual violence in the workplace and in public spaces.
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
This indicator is second indicator for SDG target 5.2 (“Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation”) for SDG 5 “Achieve gender equity and empower all women and girls.”
| Definitions and key terms
Sexual violence as defined as “any sort of harmful or unwanted sexual behavior that is imposed on someone. It includes act of abusive sexual contact, forced engagement in sexual acts, attempted or completed sexual acts with a woman or girl without her consent, sexual harassment, verbal abuse, threats, exposure, unwanted touching, incest, etc.”
Persons other than an intimate partner include: Occasional dating partners (these are not be considered intimate partners, but rather friends or acquaintances); Relatives (a person within the immediate or extended family, such as a son, parent, brother, sister, grandparent, aunt, uncle, cousin or in-law. Relationships within this category must be clearly specified so that violence by fathers, for example, can be differentiated from violence by mothers, siblings or in-laws); Acquaintances and friends from the community (persons that belong to the same circle of friends within a community, neighborhood, or village); Supervisors or co-workers (persons in the workplace); Teachers, school officials, schoolmates (persons in educational settings); Civil and military authorities (officers or civil servants serving in their capacity as representatives of civil or military authorities); or Strangers (a person unknown to the victim).
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: number of girls and women aged 15+ subjected to sexual violence in the last 12 months by persons other than an intimate partner.
* Denominator: total number of ever-partnered girls and women aged 15+ in the population.
| Suggested method for data collection
* This information is collected via surveys, typically DHS or other surveys which include standard questions for obtaining data for this indicator. Data should only be collected by teams with specialized knowledge and pre-training to collect this type of sensitive data.
* Recommended disaggregation for this indicator are: Age; Place of occurrence; Public space (including streets, parks etc.), employment etc.; Income; & Other characteristics such as disability, race, caste, ethnicity etc. as relevant
| Possible data sources
* Household surveys (DHS) conducted typically every 3 or 5 years. In some cases, data are available for disaggregation at sub-national level. Ministries of Health may have estimates available for regions or provinces.
* There is an existing, standardized and validated measurement tool (the CTS) that is widely accepted and has been implemented in a large number of countries to measure Intimate Partner Violence.
* Other national violence against women surveys
* Data for 2015 can be downloaded from the UN report on the World’s Women - http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/chapter6/chapter6.html
* If feasible and appropriate, CARE may also commission household surveys, especially if sampling to represent marginalized impact populations or specific geographic areas, not covered by national statistics. However, data should not be collected by CARE or research partner teams unless they have specialized knowledge and pre-training to collect this type of sensitive data.
| Resources needed for data collection
If the information will be gathered from secondary data sources, no investment is required for gathering this indicator at the national level. However, your evaluation may want to assess this directly in specific geographic areas or sub-populations or include questions on CARE’s contribution to the change, which will require resources for conducting surveys and focus groups (as long as teams involved have specialized knowledge and pre-training, as noted above).
| Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* How many women and girls are affected by changes in % of women reporting sexual violence by someone other than an intimate partner in the country/sub-nationally over the last year?
* Has there been an improvement of the % of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner? Or has it worsened?
* Given CARE’s role and presence, to what extent has CARE contributed to this change and at which level (national, in a particular region or part of the country, marginally)? Please explain.
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE’s main strategies for contributing to this change?
* Is the change in reported rates of sexual violence influenced by increased knowledge and awareness of the problem of GBV?
Are there significant differences in changes seen in relation to the forms of disaggregation of data for this indicator, and if so, why?
Is the change in reported rates of intimate partner violence influenced by new or amended policies, legislation, programs, spaces and/or budgets, or widespread efforts to change public attitudes or social norms?
| Other considerations
The availability of comparable data remains a challenge in this area as many data collection efforts have relied on different study methodologies. Diverse age groups are often utilized and in many high-income countries, data on intimate partner violence have largely been collected from the adult population (i.e., women and men over the age of 18). This said, existing data collection mechanisms are already in place for many countries to monitor this indicator. In addition, most developing countries only collect data through a module in the DHS and therefore limit the age range to girls and women aged 15 to 49. However, many countries are also collecting data for women without specifying an upper age limit.
The UN Guidelines for Producing Statistics on Violence against Women: Statistics Surveys have been prepared to assist countries in assessing the scope, prevalence, and incidence of violence against women - http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/docs/Guidelines_Statistics_VAW.pdf. These Guidelines provide methodological advice regarding selection of topics, sources of data, relevant statistical classifications, outputs, wording of questions and all other issues relevant for national statistical offices to conduct statistical surveys on violence against women.
There are significant ethical considerations and do no harm principles in seeking to measure prevalence of or attitudes towards violence against women and girls, and so it is essential that research partners with experience in this area are used, applying international guidance and tools in ways that are appropriate to the local context.