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|INDICATOR 11: % of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 months|
| Why this indicator? What will it measure and provide information for?
Intimate partner violence includes abuse perpetrated by a current or former partner within the context of marriage, cohabitation or any other formal or informal union. Violence directed at girls and women is the most common form of gender-based violence. Data are available by age, place of residence and wealth quintiles.
| What Sustainable Development Goal is the indicator connected to?
This indicator is first indicator for SDG target 5.2 (“Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation”) for SDG 5 “Achieve gender equity and empower all women and girls.”
| Definitions and key terms
CARE defines gender-based violence as: a harmful act or threat based on a person’s sex or gender identity. It includes physical, sexual and psychological abuse, coercion, denial of liberty and economic deprivation whether occurring in public or private spheres. GBV is rooted in unjust and unequal power relations and structures and rigid social and cultural norms.
The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life”. This definition encompasses physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community and physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetuated or condoned by the State. These different forms of violence are defined further, with examples, in the UN Guidelines for Producing Statistics on Violence against Women: Statistics Surveys. The Beijing Platform for Action further specifies that acts of violence against women include violation of the human rights of women in situations of armed conflict, such as systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy, as well as forced sterilization, coercive/ forced use of contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection. The definition also encompasses acts of violence particular to specific contexts, such as dowry-related violence and female genital mutilation.
An intimate partner is a person with whom a woman maintains an intimate relationship, whether formally (marriage), through a cohabiting relationship or by regular or steady dating. These relationships must be clearly differentiated as current marital partner, current de facto partner and current steady dating partner, and former marital partner, former de facto partner and former steady dating partner. If a woman does not have a current partner, the most recent partner may be distinguished from other former intimate partners in the analysis, as needed. Occasional dating partners should not be considered intimate partners, but rather friends or acquaintances.
| Data and information required to calculate the indicator
* Numerator: number of ever-partnered girls and women aged 15+ subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence in the last 12 months by a current or former intimate partner.
* Denominator: total number of ever-partnered girls and women aged 15+ in the population.
| Suggested method for data collection
* This information is collected via surveys, typically DHS or other surveys which include standard questions for obtaining data for this indicator. Data should only be collected by teams with specialized knowledge and pre-training to collect this type of sensitive data.
| Possible data sources
* Household surveys (DHS) conducted typically every 3 or 5 years. In some cases, data are available for disaggregation at sub-national level. Ministries of Health may have estimates available for regions or provinces.
* There is an existing, standardized and validated measurement tool (the CTS) that is widely accepted and has been implemented in a large number of countries to measure Intimate Partner Violence.
* Other national violence against women surveys
* Data for 2015 can be downloaded from the UN report on the World’s Women - http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/chapter6/chapter6.html
* If feasible and appropriate, CARE may also commission household surveys, especially if sampling to represent marginalized impact populations or specific geographic areas, not covered by national statistics. However, data should not be collected by CARE or research partner teams unless they have specialized knowledge and pre-training to collect this type of sensitive data.
| Resources needed for data collection
If the information will be gathered from secondary data sources, no investment is required for gathering this indicator at the national level. However, your evaluation may want to assess this directly in specific geographic areas or sub-populations or include questions on CARE’s contribution to the change, which will require resources for conducting surveys and focus groups (as long as teams involved have specialized knowledge and pre-training, as noted above).
| Reporting results for this indicator: number of people for which the change happened
* How many women are affected by changes in % of women reporting intimate partner violence in the country/sub-nationally over the last year?
* Has there been an improvement of the % of women and girls aged 15 years and older reporting intimate partner violence? Or has it worsened?
* Given CARE’s role and presence, to what extent has CARE contributed to this change and at which level (national, in a particular region or part of the country, marginally)? Please explain.
| Questions for guiding the analysis and interpretation of data (explaining the how and why the change happened, and how CARE contributed to the change)
* How has CARE contributed to the change? What were CARE’s main strategies for contributing to this change?
* Is the change in reported rates of intimate partner violence influenced by increased knowledge and awareness of the problem of GBV?
Are there significant differences in changes seen in relation to the different forms of violence (physical, sexual or psychological), and if so, why?
Is the change in reported rates of intimate partner violence influenced by new or amended policies, legislation, programs, spaces and/or budgets, or widespread efforts to change public attitudes or social norms?
| Other considerations
The availability of comparable data remains a challenge in this area as many data collection efforts have relied on different study methodologies and used different definitions of partner or spousal violence. Diverse age groups are often utilized and in many high-income countries, data on intimate partner violence have largely been collected from the adult population (i.e., women and men over the age of 18). This is mostly due to the fact that relatively few adolescents in such countries can be found in marriages or other formal unions before the age of 18. This said, existing data collection mechanisms are already in place for many countries to monitor this indicator. Through standalone surveys, many countries are also collecting data for girls and women without specifying an upper age limit.
The UN Guidelines for Producing Statistics on Violence against Women: Statistics Surveys have been prepared to assist countries in assessing the scope, prevalence, and incidence of violence against women. These Guidelines provide methodological advice regarding selection of topics, sources of data, relevant statistical classifications, outputs, wording of questions and all other issues relevant for national statistical offices to conduct statistical surveys on violence against women.
There are significant ethical considerations and do no harm principles in seeking to measure prevalence of or attitudes towards violence against women and girls, and so it is essential that research partners with experience in this area are used, applying international guidance and tools in ways that are appropriate to the local context.